Radiation Physics and Protection

Frits F.M. de Mul      .

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·        Non-ionizing radiation:   Electromagnetic fields and waves:

Hoe gevaarlijk zijn Mobiele Telefoons en Hoogspanningsleidingen? (In Dutch)

(How dangerous are Mobile Phones (GSM) and High Voltage Power Lines?)                Video 


·        Ionizing radiation:  Nuclide  data, and Radiological Instruments  (X-ray/gamma) (using published data for emissions, contamination (internal/external) and transport):

Emissions (energies, yields), Mass attenuation coefficients mu/rho for >120 materials, Wall transmissions with buildup, Lung clearance, Dose coefficients e(50), IAEA Safety values, Ambient Doses H*(10), H(skin), Clearance and Transport coefficients and transport data for parcels.

Website app   ;   video    .


·        Courses on Radiation Physics and Radiation Protection, presented at University of Twente, for 4-5th year University Master students in Physics, Chemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Technical Medicine etc..

Course levels (see below for links):

o   Level 3 of the Netherlands classification (National Examination), for radiation experts, enabling responsability for radiation and nuclear laboratoria, e.g. in hospitals, research centers.

o   Level 4M: for medical doctors and specialists applying radio- and nuclear therapy.

o   Level 5B: for medical and laboratory staff applying radio- and nuclear therapy.


·         What happened in    Chernobyl    and     Fukushima?    PDF-files:   

What caused the accident? What were the effects, on the population and the environment? Are there after effects?


·       Introduction to Radioactivity, emphasis on medical applications (Dutch; pdf):  Radioactiviteit en risico’s


·         Leakage of UF6-tanks:  (website-app): Calculation of radiotoxic and chemotoxic hazard upon leakage from centrifuges and tanks in an uranium enrichment plant ;

Website app: UF6-leakage   .


·        Radiation dose from uniform contamination of soil: 

Offline prog.:   Soil contamination.zzz    (download)    .

Keywords: Atomic and nuclear radiation, Decay schemes, Energy exchange mechanisms, Dosimetry, Experimental techniques, Effects on the human body, Environmental effects, External and Internal Radiation, External and Internal Contamination, Shielding problems, Clinical (diagnostic and therapeutic) consequences, Handling of incidents, Transport of radioactive materials, radioactive waste calculations, Permissions for Transport and Hospital Applications of radionuclides and radiation equipment in hospitals.

The files can be used freely, provided you promise to be so kind as to mention the name of the author and not to change the files without consulting the author.


More information about the courses

(in Dutch):

·        Syllabus for Cursus Stralingshygiëne, 3-niveau (pdf; for experts)


·        Cursus Stralingshygiëne, 4M-niveau (pdf; for medical specialists, physical background)


·        Cursus Stralingshygiëne, 5B-niveau (pdf; for experts and laboratory staff)


·        Interaction-mechanisms (a pdf-file with extra clarification of the interaction between radiation and matter, in Dutch)


·        Cross sections and activation-mechanism (a pdf-file with definitions of cross sections and the mechanism of isotope activation by neutrons)


·         Hygirad: Program for calculation of permissions for transport and for hospital applications of radionuclides and radiation equipment.



The Syllabus (pdf-file) offers additional material to text books for the course. Lots of images, tables, physical background theory. Copies from previous transparents.

Also: Quantummechanical and/or relativistic derivation of:

-         Cross sections for Photoeffect,

-         Compton and Thomson scattering

-         Probabilities for Beta decay

-         Energy interactions between protons and alpha-particles with nuclei.